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Hummingbirds and Swifts

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Rufous Hummingbird
taxon links [down<--]Neoaves Interpreting the tree
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This tree diagram shows the relationships between several groups of organisms.

The root of the current tree connects the organisms featured in this tree to their containing group and the rest of the Tree of Life. The basal branching point in the tree represents the ancestor of the other groups in the tree. This ancestor diversified over time into several descendent subgroups, which are represented as internal nodes and terminal taxa to the right.

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Containing group: Neoaves

Other Names for Apodiformes


Chantler, P. 2000. Swifts: A Guide to the Swifts and Treeswifts of the World. 2nd ed. Yale University Press, New Haven.

Chubb, A. L. 2004. Nuclear corroboration of DNA-DNA hybridization in deep phylogenies of hummingbirds, swifts, and passerines: The phylogenetic utility of ZENK (ii). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 30 (1): 128-139.

Cracraft, J., F. Keith Barker, M. J. Braun, J. Harshman, G. Dyke, J. Feinstein, S. Stanley, A. Cibois, P. Schikler, P. Beresford, J. García-Moreno, M. D. Sorenson, T. Yuri, and D. P. Mindell. 2004. Phylogenetic Relationships Among Modern Birds (Neornithes): Toward an Avian Tree of Life. Pp 468-489 in Cracraft, J. and M. J. Donoghue (eds.), Assembling the Tree of Life. Oxford University Press, New York.

Johansson, U. S., Parsons, T. J., Irestedt, M. and Ericson, P. G. P. 2001. Clades within the "higher land birds", evaluated by nuclear DNA sequences. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 39: 37-51.

Lee, P. L. M., D. H. Clayton, R. Griffiths, and R. D. M. Page. 1996. Does behavior reflect phylogeny in swiftlets (Aves: Apodidae)? A test using cytochrome b mitochondrial DNA sequences. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 93 (14): 7091-7096.

Mayr, G. 2002. Osteological evidence for paraphyly of the avian order Caprimulgiformes (nightjars and allies). Journal Fur Ornithologie 143 (1): 82-97.

Mayr, G. 2003. Phylogeny of early Tertiary swifts and hummingbirds. Auk 120 (1): 145-151.

Price, J. J., K. P. Johnson, and D. H. Clayton. 2004. The evolution of echolocation in swiftlets. Journal of Avian Biology 35 (2): 135-143.

Sibley, C. G., and J. E. Ahlquist. 1990. Swifts and Hummingbirds. Pages 391-401 in: Phylogeny and classification of birds: a study in molecular evolution. Yale University Press, New Haven.

Title Illustrations
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Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
Rufous Hummingbird
Scientific Name Selasphorus rufus
Comments Rufous Hummingbird
Creator Dean E. Biggins
Specimen Condition Live Specimen
Source Collection U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Online Digital Media Library
About This Page

Page: Tree of Life Apodiformes. Hummingbirds and Swifts. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License - Version 3.0. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media link to access the media data window, which provides the relevant licensing information. For the general terms and conditions of ToL material reuse and redistribution, please see the Tree of Life Copyright Policies.

Citing this page:

Tree of Life Web Project. 2005. Apodiformes. Hummingbirds and Swifts. Version 14 December 2005 (temporary). http://tolweb.org/Apodiformes/26391/2005.12.14 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

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Each ToL branch page provides a synopsis of the characteristics of a group of organisms representing a branch of the Tree of Life. The major distinction between a branch and a leaf of the Tree of Life is that each branch can be further subdivided into descendent branches, that is, subgroups representing distinct genetic lineages.

For a more detailed explanation of the different ToL page types, have a look at the Structure of the Tree of Life page.

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