Under Construction
This is an archived version of a Tree of Life page. For up-to-date information, please refer to the current version of this page.

Archon H?bner, 1822

Vazrick Nazari and Frédéric Carbonell
taxon links [down<--]Parnassiinae [up-->]Archon apollinaris [up-->]Archon apollinus Interpreting the tree
close box

This tree diagram shows the relationships between several groups of organisms.

The root of the current tree connects the organisms featured in this tree to their containing group and the rest of the Tree of Life. The basal branching point in the tree represents the ancestor of the other groups in the tree. This ancestor diversified over time into several descendent subgroups, which are represented as internal nodes and terminal taxa to the right.

example of a tree diagram

You can click on the root to travel down the Tree of Life all the way to the root of all Life, and you can click on the names of descendent subgroups to travel up the Tree of Life all the way to individual species.

For more information on ToL tree formatting, please see Interpreting the Tree or Classification. To learn more about phylogenetic trees, please visit our Phylogenetic Biology pages.

close box
Phylogeny after Nazari et al., 2006.
Containing group: Parnassiinae


The genus Archon has two morphologically similar species, both of which feed on Aristolochia. The two species, which are distributed in the Middle East to Turkey and Eastern Europe, were distinguished only recently, based on differences in life stages and genitalia (De Freina, 1985), and confirmed by the discovery of their sympatric occurrence in southeastern Turkey (Mardin) and their intersterility (Carbonell, 1991).


According to Hemming (1967), Papilio thia Hübner, [1805-1806], originally assigned as the type species of Archon, is a subjective synonym of Papilio apollinus Herbst, 1798 because it essentially represents the same taxon at the species level. The name Doritis (auct. nec Fabricius, 1807) has been incorrectly considered for a long time to have Papilio apollinus Herbst, 1798 as its type species, but this is invalid because it is a junior objective synonym of Parnassius Latreille, 1804 (Hemming, 1967). This confusion is due to the fact that Hübner (1819) used the name Doritis for Papilio thia, which was followed uncertainly by various authors until in 1872 Crotch even selected Papilio apollinus Herbst as the type species of Doritis (Hemming, 1967). The name Dorarchon was proposed by Rothschild much later in 1918, and is a junior synonym of Archon (Hesselbarth et al., 1995).


Carbonell, F., 1991. Contribution ? la connaissance du genre Archon H?bner 1822: D?couverte de zones de sympatrie pour Archon apollinus (Herbst) at A. apollinaris Staudinger (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). Linneana Belgica 13: 3-12.

De Freina, J.J., 1985. Revision der Gattung Archon H?bner 1822 mit Angeben zur Biologie, Verbreitung, Morphologie und Systematik von Archon apollinus (Herbst 1798) und Archon apollinaris Staudinger [1892] 1891 (stat. nov.) (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae). Nota Lepidopterologicae 8: 97-128.

Hemming, A.F., 1967. The generic names of the butterflies and their type-species (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera). Bull. Br. Mus. Nat. Hist. Ent. Suppl. 9: 509 pp.

Hesselbarth, G., van Oorschot, H., Wagener, S., 1995. Die Tagfalter der T?rkei. 1. 754 pp. Bocholt, Selbstverlag Sigbert Wagener.

Nazari, V., Zakharov, E.V., Sperling, F.A.H., 2006. Phylogeny, historical biogeography, and taxonomic ranking of Parnassiinae (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae) based on morphology and seven genes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, in press.

Title Illustrations
Scientific Name Archon apollinus lichyi
Specimen Condition Live Specimen
Identified By Carbonell
Sex Male
Copyright © 2006
About This Page

Vazrick Nazari
University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

Frédéric Carbonell

Correspondence regarding this page should be directed to Vazrick Nazari at and Fr?d?ric Carbonell at

Citing this page:

Nazari, Vazrick and Carbonell, Frédéric. 2006. Archon H?bner, 1822. Version 07 July 2006 (under construction). http://tolweb.org/Archon/65394/2006.07.07 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org

edit this page
close box

This page is a Tree of Life Branch Page.

Each ToL branch page provides a synopsis of the characteristics of a group of organisms representing a branch of the Tree of Life. The major distinction between a branch and a leaf of the Tree of Life is that each branch can be further subdivided into descendent branches, that is, subgroups representing distinct genetic lineages.

For a more detailed explanation of the different ToL page types, have a look at the Structure of the Tree of Life page.

close box


Page Content

articles & notes




Explore Other Groups

random page

  go to the Tree of Life home page