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Cattle, sheep, goats, and antelopes

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taxon links [up-->]Hippotraginae [up-->]Oreotragus oreotragus [up-->]Alcelaphinae [up-->]Caprinae [up-->]Miscellaneous fossil bovids [up-->]Neotragus [up-->]Cephalophinae [up-->]Reduncinae [up-->]Antilopinae [up-->]Aepyceros melampus extinct icon Not Monophyletic[down<--]Ruminantia Interpreting the tree
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This tree diagram shows the relationships between several groups of organisms.

The root of the current tree connects the organisms featured in this tree to their containing group and the rest of the Tree of Life. The basal branching point in the tree represents the ancestor of the other groups in the tree. This ancestor diversified over time into several descendent subgroups, which are represented as internal nodes and terminal taxa to the right.

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Containing group: Ruminantia


Africa, Europe, Asia, North America.

Other Names for Bovidae


Allard, M. W., M. M. Miyamoto, L. Jarecki, F. Kraus, and M. R. Tennant. 1992. DNA systematics and evolution of the artiodactyl family Bovidae. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 89:3972-3976.

Chaves, R., H. Guedes-Pinto, and J. S. Heslop-Harrison. 2005. Phylogenetic relationships and the primitive X chromosome inferred from chromosomal and satellite DNA analysis in Bovidae. Proceedings of the Royal Society Series B 272:2009-2016.

Essop, M. F., E. H. Harley, and I. Baumgarten. 1997. A molecular phylogeny of some Bovidae based on restriction-site mapping of mitochondrial DNA. Journal of Mammalogy 78:377-386.

Fernández, M. H. and E. S. Vrba. 2005. A complete estimate of the phylogenetic relationships in Ruminantia: a dated species-level supertree of the extant ruminants. Biological Reviews 80(2):269-302.

Gatesy, J., G. Amato, E. S. Vrba, G. Schaller, and R. Desalle. 1997. A cladistic analysis of mitochondrial ribosomal DNA from the Bovidae. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 7:303-319.

Gatesy, J. and P. Arctander. 2000. Hidden morphological support for the phylogenetic placement of Pseudoryx nghetinhensis with bovine bovids: a combined analysis of gross anatomical evidence and DNA sequences from five genes. Systematic Biology 49:515-538.

Gatesy, J., D. Yelon, R. Desalle, and E. S. Vrba. 1992. Phylogeny of the Bovidae (Artiodactyla, Mammalia), based on mitochondrial ribosomal DNA sequences. Molecular Biology and Evolution 9:433-446.

Gentry, A. W. 1978. Bovidae. Pages 540-572 in Evolution of African Mammals. V. J. Maglio and H. B. S. Cooke, eds. Harvard University Press, Cambridge.

Gentry, A. W. 1990. Evolution and dispersal of African Bovidae. Pages 195-227 in Horns, Pronghorns, and Antlers. G. A. Bubenik and A. B. Bubenik, eds. Springer-Verlag, New York.

Gentry, A. W. 1992. The subfamilies and tribes of the family Bovidae. Mammal Review 22:1-32.

Gentry, A. W. 2000. Caprinae and Hippotragini (Bovidae, Mammalia) in the Upper Miocene. Pages 65-83 in Antelopes, Deer, and Relatives. E. S. Vrba and G. B. Schaller, eds. Yale University Press, New Haven.

Grubb, P. 2001. Review of family-group names of living bovids. Journal of Mammalogy 82:374-388.

Harris, J. M. 2003. Bovidae from the Lothagan sucession. Pages 531-579 in Lothagam: the Dawn of Humanity in Eastern Africa. M. G. Leakey and J. M. Harris, eds. Columbia University Press, New York.

Hassanin, A. and E. J. P. Douzery. 1999. Evolutionary affinities of the enigmatic saola (Pseudoryx nghetinhensis) in the context of the molecular phylogeny of Bovidae. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 266:893-900.

Hassanin, A. and E. J. P. Douzery. 1999. The tribal radiation of the family Bovidae (Artiodactyla) and the evolution of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 13:227-243.

Jacoby, C. P. and C. G. Fonseca. 2000. Linguistic analysis in phylogeny estimation: a case study of mtDNAs of Bovidae. Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics 17:1047-1055.

Lalueza-Fox, C., B. Shapiro, P. Bover, J. A. Alcover, and J. Bertranpetit. 2002. Molecular phylogeny and evolution of the extinct bovid Myotragus balearicus. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 25:501-510.

Lundrigan, B. 1996. Morphology of horns and fighting behavior in the family Bovidae. Journal of Mammalogy 77:462-475.

Matthee, C. A. and S. K. Davis. 2001. Molecular insights into the evolution of the family Bovidae: a nuclear DNA perspective. Molecular Biology and Evolution 18:1220-1230.

Matthee, C. A. and T. J. Robinson. 1999. Cytochrome b phylogeny of the family bovidae: resolution within the Alcelaphini, Antilopini, Neotragini, and Tragelaphini. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 12:31-46.

McKenna, M. C. and S. K. Bell. 1997. Classification of Mammals Above the Species Level. Columbia University Press, New York.

Morales, J., D. Soria, and M. Pickford. 1995. On the origins of the family bovidae (Artiodactyla, Mammalia). Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences Serie II A 321(12):1211-1217.

Vrba, E. S. 1995. The fossil record of African antelopes (Mammalia, Bovidae) in relation to human evolution and palaeoclimate. Pages 385-424 in Paleoclimate and Evolution: With Emphasis on Human Origins. E. S. Vrba, G. H. Denton, T. C. Partridge and L. H. Burkle), eds. Yale University Press, New Haven.

Vrba, E. S. and G. B. Schaller, eds. 2000. Antelopes, Deer, and Relatives. Yale University Press, New Haven.

Information on the Internet

Title Illustrations
Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
Scientific Name Aepyceros melampus
Location Okavango Delta, Botswana
Comments impala
Specimen Condition Live Specimen
Copyright © 1991 Greg and Marybeth Dimijian
Scientific Name Taurotragus oryx
Location Ngorogoro Wildlife Lodge, Tanzania
Acknowledgements Photograph courtesy InsectImages.org (#4321056)
Specimen Condition Live Specimen
Source Collection Bugwood Network/Forestry Images
Copyright © Kenneth M. Gale
Scientific Name Oreamnos americanus
Location just below the peak of Mount Timpanogos, Wasatch Mountains, Utah, USA
Specimen Condition Live Specimen
Source Family of Goats
Source Collection Flickr
Image Use creative commons This media file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License - Version 2.0.
Copyright © 2007 kris
About This Page

Page: Tree of Life Bovidae. Cattle, sheep, goats, and antelopes. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License - Version 3.0. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media link to access the media data window, which provides the relevant licensing information. For the general terms and conditions of ToL material reuse and redistribution, please see the Tree of Life Copyright Policies.

Citing this page:

Tree of Life Web Project. 2006. Bovidae. Cattle, sheep, goats, and antelopes. Version 23 February 2006 (temporary). http://tolweb.org/Bovidae/50878/2006.02.23 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

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