Monarchs and QueensAndrew V. Z. Brower
This tree diagram shows the relationships between several groups of organisms.
The root of the current tree connects the organisms featured in this tree to their containing group and the rest of the Tree of Life. The basal branching point in the tree represents the ancestor of the other groups in the tree. This ancestor diversified over time into several descendent subgroups, which are represented as internal nodes and terminal taxa to the right.
You can click on the root to travel down the Tree of Life all the way to the root of all Life, and you can click on the names of descendent subgroups to travel up the Tree of Life all the way to individual species.
For more information on ToL tree formatting, please see Interpreting the Tree or Classification. To learn more about phylogenetic trees, please visit our Phylogenetic Biology pages.close box
Discussion of Phylogenetic Relationships
The cladogram is based on morphological characters as published by Ackery and Vane-Wright (1984). There is some suggestion of polyphyly in D. chrysippus implied by molecular data - see Lushai et al. (2005a, b).
Other Names for Danaus
- Vernacular Names: Monarchs and Queens
Ackery PR, and Vane-Wright RI. 1984. Milkweed butterflies. British Museum (Natural History), London.
Brower, L. P., Oberhauser, K., Boppre, M., Brower, A. V. Z. & Vane-Wright, R. I. 2007. Monarch sex: ancient rites, or recent wrongs? Antenna 31:12-18.
Lushai G, Allen JA, Goulson D, MacLean N, and Smith DAS. 2005. The butterfly Danaus chrysippus (L.) in East Africa comprises polyphyletic, sympatric lineages that are, despite behavioral isolation, driven to hybridization by female-biased sex ratios. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 86: 117-131.
Lushai G, Zalucki MP, Smith DAS, Goulson D, and Daniels G. 2005. The lesser wanderer butterfly, Danaus petilia (Stoll 1790) stat. rev. (Lepidoptera: Danainae), reinstated as a species. Australian Journal of Entomology 44: 6-14.
About This Page
Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, Tennessee, USA
Correspondence regarding this page should be directed to Andrew V. Z. Brower at
Page copyright © 2010
Page: Tree of Life Danaus Authored by . Monarchs and Queens.Andrew V. Z. Brower. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License - Version 3.0. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media link to access the media data window, which provides the relevant licensing information. For the general terms and conditions of ToL material reuse and redistribution, please see the Tree of Life Copyright Policies.
- First online 04 October 2006
- Content changed 21 April 2009
Citing this page:
Brower, Andrew V. Z. 2009. Danaus http://tolweb.org/Danaus/70714/2009.04.21 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/. Monarchs and Queens. Version 21 April 2009 (under construction).