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Elephants and mammoths

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Classification after Shoshani 1998.
Containing group: Proboscidea

Other Names for Elephantidae


Barriel, V., E. Thuet, and P. Tassy. 1999. Molecular phylogeny of Elephantidae. Extreme divergence of the extant forest African elephant. Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences Serie III 322:447-454.

Debruyne, R., V. Barriel, and P. Tassya. 2003. Mitochondrial cytochrome b of the Lyakhov mammoth (Proboscidea, Mammalia): new data and phylogenetic analyses of Elephantidae. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 26(3):421-434.

Eltringham, S.K. 1982. Elephants. Blandford Press, Poole, England.

Greenwood, A. D., C. Capelli, G. Possnert, and S. Pääbo. 1999. Nuclear DNA sequences from late Pleistocene megafauna. Molecular Biology and Evolution 16:1466-1473.

Haynes, G. 1991. Mammoths, Mastodonts, and Elephants: Biology, Behavior, and the Fossil Record. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New York.

Krause, J., P. H. Dear, J. L. Pollack, M. Slatkin, H. Spriggs, I. Barnes, A. M. Lister, I. Ebersberger, S. Paabo, and M. Hofreiter. 2006. Multiplex amplification of the mammoth mitochondrial genome and the evolution of Elephantidae. Nature 439:724-727.

Noro, M., R. Masuda, I. A. Dubrovo, M. C. Yoshida, and M. Kato. 1998. Molecular phylogenetic inference of the woolly mammoth Mammuthus primigenius, based on complete sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome b and 12S ribosomal RNA genes. Journal of Molecular Evolution 46:314-326.

Ozawa, T., S. Hayashi, and V. M. Mikhelson. 1997. Phylogenetic position of Mammoth and Steller's sea cow within Tethytheria demonstrated by mitochondrial DNA sequences. Journal of Molecular Evolution 44:406-413.

Shoshani, J. 1998. Understanding proboscidean evolution: a formidable task. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 13:480-487.

Shoshani, J., E. M. Golenberg, and H. Yang. 1998. Elephantidae phylogeny: morphological versus molecular results. Acta Theriologica Suppl. 5:89-122.

Shoshani, J. and P. Tassy (eds.) 1996. The Proboscidea. Evolution and Palaeoecology of Elephants and Their Relatives. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Thomas, M. G., E. Hagelberg, H. B. Jones, Z. Yang, and A. M. Lister. 2000. Molecular and morphological evidence on the phylogeny of the Elephantidae. Proceedings of the Royal Society London Series B 267:2493-2500.

Yang, H., E. M. Golenberg, and J. Shoshani. 1996. Phylogenetic resolution within the Elephantidae using fossil DNA sequence from the American mastodon (Mammut americanum) as an outgroup. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 93:1190-1194.

Yang, H., E. M. Golenberg, and J. Shoshani. 1997. Proboscidean DNA from museum and fossil specimens: An assessment of ancient DNA extraction and amplification techniques. Biochemical Genetics 35:165-179.

Information on the Internet

Title Illustrations
Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
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Scientific Name Loxodonta africana
Location Masai Mara, Kenya
Copyright © Greg and Marybeth Dimijian
Scientific Name Mammuthus primigenius
Location Royal BC Museum, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada
Specimen Condition Model
Source Johnny Lightning
Source Collection Flickr
Image Use creative commons This media file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License - Version 2.0.
Copyright © 2005 Todd Anderson
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Citing this page:

Tree of Life Web Project. 2004. Elephantidae. Elephants and mammoths. Version 26 March 2004 (temporary). http://tolweb.org/Elephantidae/16451/2004.03.26 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

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