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Loxodonta africana

African Elephant

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Containing group: Elephantidae

Other Names for Loxodonta africana


Barriel, V., E. Thuet, and P. Tassy. 1999. Molecular phylogeny of Elephantidae. Extreme divergence of the extant forest African elephant. Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences Serie III 322:447-454.

Eggert, L. S., C. A. Rasner, and D. S. Woodruff. 2002. The evolution and phylogeography of the African elephant inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequence and nuclear microsatellite markers. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 269(1504):1993-2006.

Eltringham, S.K. 1982. Elephants. Blandford Press, Poole, England.

Gaeth, A. P., R. V. Short, and M. B. Renfree. 1999. The developing renal, reproductive, and respiratory systems of the African elephant suggest an aquatic ancestry. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 96:5555-5558.

Hauf, J., P. J. Waddell, N. Chalwatzis, U. Joger, and F. K. Zimmermann. 1999. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana), phylogenetic relationships of Proboscidea to other mammals, and D-loop heteroplasmy. Zoology - Analysis of Complex Systems 102:184-195.

Haynes, G. 1991. Mammoths, Mastodonts, and Elephants: Biology, Behavior, and the Fossil Record. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New York.

Roca, A. L., N. Georgiadis, J. Pecon-Slattery, and S. J. O'Brien. 2001. Genetic evidence for two species of elephant in Africa. Science 293(5534):1473-1477.

Tangley, L. 1997. Wildlife biology - In search of Africa's forgotten forest elephant. Science 275:1417-1419.

Information on the Internet

Title Illustrations
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Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
Scientific Name Loxodonta africana
Location Khwai, Okavango Delta, Botswana
Comments elephant breeding herd
Copyright © 2000 Greg and Marybeth Dimijian
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Citing this page:

Tree of Life Web Project. 2005. Loxodonta africana. African Elephant. Version 09 September 2005 (temporary). http://tolweb.org/Loxodonta_africana/22667/2005.09.09 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

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