Under Construction

Lepidoteuthidae Pfeffer 1912

Lepidoteuthis grimaldii Joubin, 1895

The scaled squid

Richard E. Young and Michael Vecchione
Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
This family contains a single species.
Containing group: Lepidoteuthid families

Introduction

Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window

Figure. Ventral view of fins and mantle of syntype of L. grimaldii. Photograph by M. Vecchione.

L. grimaldii is a large squid (100 cm ML) whose tentacles fail to grow much beyond the paralarval stage and are lost in subadults. It has a mantle mostly covered with overlapping dermal cushions (= "scales"). This squid is rarely captured and little is known of its biology.

Brief diagnosis:

A member of the lepidoteuthid families ...

Characteristics

  1. Arms
    1. Arms with biserial suckers; single hook present near base of each arm II in males only (Jackson and O'Shea, 2003).
      Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
      Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window

      Figure. Oral views of a hook from arm II and adjacent sucker of L. grimaldii showing size comparison, 220 mm ML, immature male, Hawaiian waters. Outer horny ring and associated tissue removed. Photograph by R. Young.

      Figure. Side views of the same hook and sucker from L. grimaldii. Photographs by R. Young.

  2. Tentacles
    1. Tentacles absent in subadults and adults; greatly reduced in juveniles.
      Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
      Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window

      Figure. Oral view of the reduced tentacles of L. grimaldii, 94 mm ML, N. Atlantic. Arms IV had been broken off during capture. Photograph by R. Young.

  3. Head
    1. Beaks: Descriptions can be found here: Lower beak; upper beak.

  4. Mantle
    1. Mantle mostly covered with overlapping dermal cushions ("scales").

  5. Fins
    1. Fins large, terminal.

  6. Photophores
    1. Photophores absent.

Nomenclature

The paralarva was first described as Enoptroteuthis spinicauda Berry, 1920 but its familial relationships were obscure. Subsequently various authors placed it alternately in three different families. Over 70 years after its original capture, it was identified as belonging to none of these families, but as a young L. grimaldii (Young, 1991).

A list of all nominal genera and species in the Lepidoteuthidae can be found here. The list includes the current status and type species of all genera, and the current status, type repository and type locality of all species and all pertinent references.

Life History

The paralarva reaches a rather large size (at least 10 mm ML). Large, thick tentacles are present in the paralarva and they have small, compact clubs. The clubs carry only a few suckers, in two series, with some very large and some very small. During the early subadult stage, the tentacles are lost. The adults therefore rely solely on their eight arms for capturing prey. Young et al. (1998) suggest that the ancestor of Lepidoteuthis may have had highly specialized, elongate tentacles, as are found in some chiroteuthidids today. When evolutionary pressures changed, the tentacles were too specialized to change quickly and, instead, were lost.

Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window

Figure. Left - Ventral views of tentacular club, brachial crown and paralarva of L. grimaldii, 10 mm ML, off Hawaii. The digestive gland is bright red and spindle-shaped, although it appears round in ventral view, and is located well posterior to the cephalic cartilage. Photographs from Young, et al. (1998). Right - Ventral view of a paralarva of L. grimaldii and an oral view of its tentacular club, 9.7 mm ML. Note the terminal position of the fins. Drawing from Young, 1991.

A juvenile was described by Clarke (1964). The juvenile had abortive tentacles, about 3 mm in length, with a few abortive suckers lacking horny rings. The tentacles in a 85 mm ML juvenile were slightly smaller.

Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window

Figure. Side view of L. grimaldii, 60 mm ML. Photograph from Clarke (1964

An intact adult was first described by Clarke and Maul (1962). No remnant of the tentacles remain in the adult.

Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window

Figure. Ventral view of an intact adult L. grimaldii, 75 cm ML. The scale bar is 10 cm.Photograph from Clarke and Maul (1962).

Distribution

This species is known from the tropical and subtropical of the regions of the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans (Nesis, 1982/87).

Other Names for Lepidoteuthis grimaldii Joubin, 1895

References

Berry, S. S. 1920. Preliminary diagnoses of new cephalopods from the western Atlantic. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 58: 293-300.

Clarke, M. R. 1964. Young stages of Lepidoteuthis grimaldii (Cephalopoda, Decapoda). Proc. Malac. Soc. Lond., 36: 69-78.

Clarke, M. R. and G. E. Maul. 1962. A description of the "scaled" squid Lepidoteuthis grimaldi Joubin 1895. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 139: 97-118.

Nesis, K. N. 1982/87. Abridged key to the cephalopod mollusks of the world's ocean. 385+ii pp. Light and Food Industry Publishing House, Moscow. (In Russian.). Translated into English by B. S. Levitov, ed. by L. A. Burgess (1987), Cephalopods of the world. T. F. H. Publications, Neptune City, NJ, 351pp.

Young, R. E. (1991). Chiroteuthid and related paralarvae from Hawaiian waters. Bull. Mar. Sci., 49: 162-185.

Young, R. E., M. Vecchione and D. Donovan. 1998. The evolution of coleoid cephalopods and their present biodiversity and ecology. South African Jour. Mar. Sci., 20: 393-420.

Title Illustrations
Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
Scientific Name Lepidoteuthis grimaldii
Location N.E. Chatham Rise off New Zealand, at 4259'S, 17554'W
Comments Caught in bottom trawl at 812 m depth
Acknowledgements National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research (NIWA)
Specimen Condition Fresh
Identified By Darren Stevens
Sex Female
View Dorsal
Size 617 mm ML, 4070 g weight
Collector NIWA
Image Use creative commons This media file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License - Version 3.0.
Copyright ©
About This Page


University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, USA


National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D. C. , USA

Page: Tree of Life Lepidoteuthidae Pfeffer 1912. Lepidoteuthis grimaldii Joubin, 1895. The scaled squid. Authored by Richard E. Young and Michael Vecchione. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License - Version 3.0. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media link to access the media data window, which provides the relevant licensing information. For the general terms and conditions of ToL material reuse and redistribution, please see the Tree of Life Copyright Policies.

Citing this page:

Young, Richard E. and Michael Vecchione. 2014. Lepidoteuthidae Pfeffer 1912. Lepidoteuthis grimaldii Joubin, 1895. The scaled squid. Version 21 January 2014 (under construction). http://tolweb.org/Lepidoteuthis_grimaldii/19833/2014.01.21 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

edit this page
close box

This page is a Tree of Life Leaf Page.

Each ToL leaf page provides a synopsis of the characteristics of a group of organisms representing a leaf at the tip of the Tree of Life. The major distinction between a leaf and a branch of the Tree of Life is that a leaf cannot generally be further subdivided into subgroups representing distinct genetic lineages.

For a more detailed explanation of the different ToL page types, have a look at the Structure of the Tree of Life page.

close box

Lepidoteuthis grimaldii

Page Content

articles & notes

collections

people

Explore Other Groups

random page

  go to the Tree of Life home page
top