LycoteuthidaeMichael Vecchione and Richard E. Young
This tree diagram shows the relationships between several groups of organisms.
The root of the current tree connects the organisms featured in this tree to their containing group and the rest of the Tree of Life. The basal branching point in the tree represents the ancestor of the other groups in the tree. This ancestor diversified over time into several descendent subgroups, which are represented as internal nodes and terminal taxa to the right.
You can click on the root to travel down the Tree of Life all the way to the root of all Life, and you can click on the names of descendent subgroups to travel up the Tree of Life all the way to individual species.close box
Lycoteuthids are mostly small, muscular squids occupying mesopelagic depths during the day and migrating into near-surface waters at night. They are tropical and subtropical in distribution but are not known from the North Pacific. They possess a large variety of luminous organs. Oval photophores are found on the tentacles, eyeballs and viscera in all species and on the arms, head, mantle and fins in some. Strong sexual dimorphism in general morphology occurs in some species.
A member of the enoploteuthid families ...
- without hooks.
- with photophores on viscera, eyeballs and in tentacles.
- Arms with biserial suckers; hooks absent.
- Tentacular clubs with quadraserial suckers; hooks absent.
- Tail slender, long or short, without vesicles, extends well posterior to gladius.
- Ocular: 4 or 5 oval photophores present on eyeball.
- Viscera: anal, branchial, postero-abdominal organs present on viscera. Abdominal photophores present in most species.
- Tentacles: 2-5 spherical organs embedded in tentacles.
CommentsA variety of other photophores are found in specific genera or species.
Comparisons of subfamilies:
|Hectocotylus||Abdominal photophores||Ocular photophores||Rostrum on gladius|
A single species, Lampadioteuthis megaleia, exists in the Lampadioteuthinae. The three genera of the Lycoteuthinae can be separated as follows:
|Male genitalia||Greatly elongated arms (males)||Large photophore at posterior mantle apex||Photophores on arms II and III|
|Lycoteuthis||Paired||Arms II||No||Subterminal, many|
|Nematolampas||Single||Arms III*||No||Subterminal, single or many|
Chun (1903) erected the family Thaumatolampadidae for the species now known as Lycoteuthis lorigera. In 1908 Pfeffer placed this species in the subfamily Lycoteuthinae of the Onychoteuthidae. Berry (1914) removed the lycoteuthids from the Enoploteuthidae and erected the family Lycoteuthidae for them. Since the Name Thaumatolampadidae had not been used for nearly 50 years Voss (1962) stated that this name should not be maintained regardless of possible priority. Berry (1916) erected the family Lampadioteuthidae for Lampadioteuthis megaleia. Naef (1923) included the Lycoteuthinae as a subfamily of the Enoploteuthidae. Voss(1956) maintained the separate familial status for the Lycoteuthidae and in 1962 maintained the subfamilial status for the Lampadioteuthinae.
A list of all nominal genera and species in the Lycoteuthidae can be found here. The list includes the current status and type species of all genera, and the current status, type repository and type locality of all species and all pertinent references.
Arocha, F. 2003. A new species of Nematolampas (cephalopoda: Oegopsida) from the Western Central Atlantic with an overview of the family Lycoteuthidae. Bull Mar. Sci., 72: 941-953.
Berry, S.S. 1914. Notes on a Collection of Cephalopods from the Kermadec Islands. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute, 46(24):134-149.
Berry, S.S. 1916. Cephalopoda of the Kermadec Islands. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 68:45-66.
Chun, C. 1903. Uber Leuchtorgane und Augen von Tiefsee-Cephalopoden. Verhandlungen der Deutschen Zoologischen Gesellschaft, 13:67-91, 14 figures.
Naef, A. 1921-1923. Die Cephalopoden. Fauna e Flora del Golfo di Napoli, Monographie 35, Vol I, Parts I and II, Systematik, pp 1-863.
Pfeffer, G. 1908. Teuthologische Bemerkungen. Mitteilungen aus dem Naturhistorischen Museum Hamburg, 25:289-295.
Voss, G.L. 1956. A Review of the Cephalopods of the Gulf of Mexico. Bulletin of Marine Science of the Gulf and Caribbean, 6(2):85-178.
Voss, G. L. 1962. A monograph of the Cephalopoda of the North Atlantic. I. The Family Lycoteuthidae. Bull. Mar. Sci. Gulf Carib. 12: 264-305.
Young, R. E. and R. Harman. 1998. The phylogeny of the "enoploteuthid families." Smithson. Contr. Zool., No. 586: 257-270
National Marine Fisheries Service
National Museum of Natural History
Washington, D. C. 20560
Richard E. Young
Dept of Oceanography
University of Hawaii
Honolulu, Hawaii 96822
Page copyright © 1999 and Richard E. Young
Citing this page:
Vecchione, Michael and Young, Richard E. 1999. Lycoteuthidae http://tolweb.org/Lycoteuthidae/19636/1999.01.01 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/. Version 01 January 1999 (complete).