Typical AntbirdsJohn Harshman
This tree diagram shows the relationships between several groups of organisms.
The root of the current tree connects the organisms featured in this tree to their containing group and the rest of the Tree of Life. The basal branching point in the tree represents the ancestor of the other groups in the tree. This ancestor diversified over time into several descendent subgroups, which are represented as internal nodes and terminal taxa to the right.
You can click on the root to travel down the Tree of Life all the way to the root of all Life, and you can click on the names of descendent subgroups to travel up the Tree of Life all the way to individual species.close box
Relationships after Moyle et al. (2009), Irestedt et al. (2004), and Brumfield et al. (2007). Taxa shown as incertae sedis were not included in any analysis.
Most remaining lack of resolution in the tree is due to weak support; however, within the tribe Pyriglenini, there are a number of cases in which contradictory relationships are strongly supported by the analyses of Moyle et al. (2009) and Brumfield et al. (2007); the contradictions are treated here as unresolved.
Bates J. M., S. J. Hackett, and J. M. Goerck. 1999. High levels of mitochondrial DNA differentiation in two lineages of antbirds Drymophila and Hypocnemis. Auk 116:1093-1106.
Brumfield, R. T., J. G. Tello, Z. A. Cheviron, M. D. Carling, N. Crochet, and K. V. Rosenberg. 2007. Phylogenetic conservatism and antiquity of a tropical specialization: Army-ant-following in the typical antbirds (Thamnophilidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 45(1):1-13.
Gill, F. and M. Wright. 2006. Birds of the World: Recommended English Names. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press.
Hackett, S. J. and K. V. Rosenberg. 1990. Comparison of phenotypic and genetic differentiation in South American antwrens (Formicariidae). Auk 107:473-489.
Irestedt, M., J. Fjeldså, J. A. A. Nylander, and P. G. P. Ericson. 2004. Phylogenetic relationships of typical antbirds (Thamnophilidae) and test of incongruence based on Bayes factors. BMC Evolutionary Biology 4:23.
Isler, M. L., P. R. Isler, and B. M. Whitney. 1998. Use of vocalizations to establish species limits in antbirds (Passeriformes: Thamnophilidae). Auk 115:577-590.
Isler, M. L., P. R. Isler, and B. M. Whitney. 1999. Species limits in antbirds (Passeriformes: Thamnophilidae): The Myrmotherula complex.
Isler, P. R. and B. M. Whitney. 2002. Songs of the Antbirds. Macaulay Library of Natural Sounds, Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology. Ithaca, NY.
Moyle, R. G., R. T. Chesser, R. T. Brumfield, J. G. Tello, D. J. Marchese, and J. Cracraft. 2009. Phylogeny and phylogenetic classification of the antbirds, ovenbirds, woodcreepers, and allies (Aves: Passeriformes: infraorder Furnariides. Cladistics 25:386-405.
Ridgely, R. S. and G. Tudor. 1994. The Birds of South America. Volume 2. The Suboscine Passerines. University of Texas, Austin.
Skutch, A. F. 1996. Antbirds and Ovenbirds. University of Texas Press, Austin, TX.
Zimmer, K.J. and K.J. Isler. 2003. Family Thamnophilidae (typical antibirds). Pages 448–651in Handbook of the Birds of the World. Vol. 8. Broadbills to Tapaculos. J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, and D. A. Christie, eds. BirdLife International and Lynx Editions, Cambridge, UK and Barcelona.
Correspondence regarding this page should be directed to John Harshman at
Page copyright © 2009
Page: Tree of Life Thamnophilidae. Typical Antbirds. Authored by John Harshman. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License - Version 3.0. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media link to access the media data window, which provides the relevant licensing information. For the general terms and conditions of ToL material reuse and redistribution, please see the Tree of Life Copyright Policies.
- First online 05 December 2007
- Content changed 22 August 2009
Citing this page:
Harshman, John. 2009. Thamnophilidae. Typical Antbirds. Version 22 August 2009 (under construction). http://tolweb.org/Thamnophilidae/67983/2009.08.22 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/