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Todarodinae Adam 1960

Richard E. Young and Michael Vecchione
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taxon links [up-->]Martialia [up-->]Todarodes [up-->]Nototodarus [up-->]Todaropsis [down<--]Ommastrephidae Interpreting the tree
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Containing group: Ommastrephidae

Introduction

We follow Roeleveld (1988) in considering this subfamily to be united by the modifications of the hectocotylus. The genus Todaropsis has been considered by some authors to belong in the subfamily Illicinae, in spite of a club dactylus with suckers in only four series, because of the lack of foveola in the funnel grove.

Brief diagnosis:

an ommastrephid ...

Characteristics

  1. Arms
    1. Hectocotylus with enlarged distal ventral protective membrane with thickened trabeculae producing a picketed effect.
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      Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window

      Figure. Oral views of hectocotylized left or right ventral arms of representatives of Todarodinae genera. A - Todarodes filippovae, distal part of right arm IV. B - Todarodes pacificus, distal part of right arm. C - Martialia hyadesi, distal part of right arm IV. D - Notodarus sloani, distal part of right arm IV. E - Notodarus gouldi, distal part of right arm IV. F - Todaropsis eblanae, distal part of right arm IV.  v - Ventral side of arm. Drawings from Roeleveld (1988). 

  2. Tentacles
    1. Tentacular club with dactylus suckers in four series.
    2. Carpal locking-apparatus absent.
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      Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window

      Figure. Oral view of the tentacular club of N. hawaiiensis, 80 mm ML, Philippine waters. Drawing from Voss (1963).

  3. Head
    1. Funnel groove usually with anterior foveola (absent in Todaropsis) and without side pockets.
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      Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window

      Figure. Left - Ventral view of the funnel groove comparing modifications in two of the subfamilies. Drawing modified from Roper, et al. (1985). Right - Photograph of the funnel groove of Nototodarus hawaiiensis showing foveola (arrow) without side pockets. Photograph by R. Young.

  4. Photophores
    1. Photophores absent.

Table. Comparison of genera of Todarodinae

  Hectocotylus  Funnel groove with foveola
Tentacular stalks with free trabeculae
Largest manus sucker with
Largest manus sucker with teeth
Martialia  Left or right arm IV  Yes Yes one tooth enlarged  linked by intermediate ridges or plates. 
Todarodes  Right arm IV  Yes No  generally subequal teeth
linked by intermediate ridges or plates.
Nototodarus  Both arms IV  Yes
No  one tooth enlarged or subequal teeth linked by intermediate ridges or plates.
Todaropsis  Both arms IV  No  No  subequal teeth  without intermediate ridges or plates 

References

Roeleveld, M. A. 1988. Generic interrelationships within the Ommastrephidae (Cephalopoda). P.277-314. In: M. R. Clarke and E. R. Trueman (eds.). The Mollusca. Vol. 12. Paleontology and Neontology of Cephalopods. Academic Press, N.Y., 355pp.

Title Illustrations
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Scientific Name Unknown species of Todarodinae
Specimen Condition Fresh
Sex Female
View Dorsal
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About This Page


University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, USA


National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D. C. , USA

Correspondence regarding this page should be directed to Richard E. Young at and Michael Vecchione at

Page: Tree of Life Todarodinae Adam 1960. Authored by Richard E. Young and Michael Vecchione. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License - Version 3.0. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media link to access the media data window, which provides the relevant licensing information. For the general terms and conditions of ToL material reuse and redistribution, please see the Tree of Life Copyright Policies.

Citing this page:

Young, Richard E. and Michael Vecchione. 2008. Todarodinae Adam 1960. Version 25 April 2008 (under construction). http://tolweb.org/Todarodinae/19934/2008.04.25 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

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