Complete

Ommastrephidae Steenstrup 1857

Richard E. Young, Michael Vecchione, and Martina A. Compagno Roeleveld (ca. 1946-2006)
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This family is generally divided into three subfamilies and eleven genera that contain 22 species.

taxon links [up-->]Ommastrephinae [up-->]Todarodinae [up-->]Illicinae [down<--]Oegopsida Interpreting the tree
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Containing group: Oegopsida

Introduction

Members of the Ommastrephidae are small (about 10 cm ML) to large (about 100 cm ML), muscular squids that are often the dominant large squids in oceanic and, occasionally, neritic waters.  A number of species are fished commercially. 

Ommastrephid squids are among the strongest swimmers in the Cephalopoda. Some are commonly known as "flying squid" due to their ability to glide over the ocean surface as seen in the photographs.

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Figure. A squid, presumably Ommastrephes bartramii, gliding over the sea surface near Japan. Left - The original photograph by Geoff Jones. Right - Enlarged and enhanced (by Geoff Jones) reproduction of the squid. Note the spread fins and the spread arms with extended membranes that apparently aid gliding. © Geoff Jones

Brief diagnosis

An oegopsid squid ...

Characteristics

  1. Funnel/mantle locking-apparatus with an inverted T-shape.
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    Figure. Frontal views of the funnel/mantle locking apparatus. Left - Funnel component of Illex illecebrosus. Middle - Mantle component of Illex illecebrosus. Photographs by M. Vecchione. Right - Opened mantle cavity showing the funnel/mantle locking apparatus of Todaropsis eblanae. Drawing from Naef (1921-23).

    Comparisons of the funnel/mantle locking-apparatus between genera can be found here.

  2. Funnel adductor muscles
    1. Thick lateral funnel-adductor muscles connect lateral edges of funnel with head near its ventral surface. [These muscles are not homologous with the more superficial muscles of the Sepioidea which bear the same name.]
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      Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window

      Figure. Ventral view of the funnel of Illex illecebrosus showing the strong lateral adductor muscles (arrows). These muscles are also seen in the drawing of Todaropsis eblanae above. Photograph by M. Vecchione.

  3. Paralarvae (rhynchoteuthion stage) with fused tentacles (=proboscis).

    The proboscis begins to split at the base usually around 3-4 mm ML. The split gradually increases until the proboscis has split completely in half to form the two tentacles at about 7-10 mm ML. The proboscis increases in size as the paralarva grows but at about 6 mm ML the proboscis begins to shrink in absolute size until the tentacles are formed. The small newly formed tentacles appear to be initially non-functional (poorly formed suckers) but grow rapidly (see Wakabayashi et al., 2002).

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    Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window

    Figure. Rhynchoteuthion paralarvae. Left - Oral view, species unknown. Drawing modified from Naef (1921-23). Middle -Ventral view of Ommastrephes bartramii, 4 days old, living. Photograph by Y. Sakurai. Right - Ventral view of Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis, advanced, fresh. Photograph by R. Young.

  4. Arms with biserial suckers.
  5. Tentacular clubs with quadraserial suckers (club dactylus with eight sucker series in Illex).
  6. Buccal connectives attach to dorsal borders of Arms IV.
  7. Distinctive, slender gladius with primary conus.
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    Figure. Ventral view of the gladius of Todarodes sagittatus, immature, 120 mm ML. Drawing from Naef (1921-23).

Comparison of subfamilies:

  Photophores present1 Dactylus suckers Funnel- groove foveola3 Funnel- groove side pockets3 Distal protective membranes on hectocotylus Carpal locking apparatus2
Illicinae No  8 series No  No  Absent  Absent 
Ommastrephinae Yes  4 series  Yes  Yes  Ventral membrane enlarged subdistally  Present except Ornithoteuthis
Todarodinae No  4 series  Yes/No  No  Ventral membrane with thickened trabeculae  Absent 

Nomenclature

A list of all nominal genera and species in the Ommastrephidae can be found here. The list includes the current status and type species of all genera, and the current status, type repository and type locality of all species and all pertinent references.

Discussion of Phylogenetic Relationships

Although the family is very well characterized, placement of species with genera and subfamilies has, in some cases, been controversial. These controversies have often revolved around the importance of absence of a character (e. g., absence of foveola and side pockets from the funnel groove of Todaropsis, a feature shared with Illex) which, without adequate polarization, could be interpreted as a synapomorphy, a symplesiomorphy, or a convergent loss.

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Figure. Phylogenetic tree of the Ommastrephidae. The three basal branches represent the three subfamilies. Figure based on Roeleveld (1988).

The relationships presented here are from the phylogenetic study by Roeleveld (1988). The relationships are based on a number of different structures but rely heavily on the structure of the hectocotylus. The lack of known relationships among outgroups makes rooting of the tree difficult. Not all workers agree with the subfamial placement of genera (e.g. Nesis, 1982/7; Wormuth, et al., 1998). The latter authors place Todaropsis next to Illex in the Illicinae.

References

Nesis, K. N. 1982. Abridged key to the cephalopod mollusks of the world's ocean. 385+ii pp. Light and Food Industry Publishing House, Moscow. (In Russian.). Translated into English by B. S. Levitov, ed. by L. A. Burgess (1987), Cephalopods of the world. T. F. H. Publications, Neptune City, NJ, 351pp.

Roeleveld, M. A. 1988. Generic interrelationships within the Ommastrephidae (Cephalopoda). P.277-314. In: M. R. Clarke and E. R. Trueman (eds.). The Mollusca. Vol. 12. Paleontology and Neontology of Cephalopods. Academic Press, N.Y., 355pp.

Wakabayashi, T., K. Saito, K. Tsuchiya and S. Segawa. 2002. Descriptions of Eucleoteuthis luminosa (Sasaki, 1915) and Ornithoteuthis volatilis (Sasaki, 1915) paralarvae in the Northwestern Pacific. Venus, 60 (4): 237-260.

Wormuth, J. 1998 Workshop deliberations on the Ommastrephidae; a brief history of their systematics; and a review of the systematics, distribution and biology of the genera Martialia Rochebrune and Mabille, 1889, Todaropsis Girard, 1890, Dosidicus Steenstrup, 1857, Hyaloteuthis Gray, 1849, and Eucleoteuthis Berry, 1916. Smithson. Contr. Zool., No. 586:373-384..

Title Illustrations
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Scientific Name Nototodarus hawaiiensis
Location Hawaiian waters
Creator Ray Hixon
Specimen Condition Live Specimen
Behavior Resting on bottom of aquarium
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Copyright ©
Scientific Name Eucleoteuthis luminosa
Location off Hawaii
Image Use creative commons This media file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License - Version 3.0.
Copyright © 1996
About This Page


University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, USA


National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D. C. , USA

Martina A. Compagno Roeleveld (ca. 1946-2006)
South African Museum, Cape Town, South Africa

Page: Tree of Life Ommastrephidae Steenstrup 1857. Authored by Richard E. Young, Michael Vecchione, and Martina A. Compagno Roeleveld (ca. 1946-2006). The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License - Version 3.0. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media link to access the media data window, which provides the relevant licensing information. For the general terms and conditions of ToL material reuse and redistribution, please see the Tree of Life Copyright Policies.

Citing this page:

Young, Richard E., Michael Vecchione, and Martina A. Compagno Roeleveld (ca. 1946-2006). 2012. Ommastrephidae Steenstrup 1857. Version 10 November 2012. http://tolweb.org/Ommastrephidae/19418/2012.11.10 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

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