- Abdominal segment III with tergosternal fusion
- Tergite of abdominal segment IV hypertrophied, comprising entire dorsum of gaster in dorsal view
- Ileum dilated and thickened to accommodate microorganisms
- Proventriculus mushroom-shaped, with a sclerotized cuticular framework
Bolton, B. 1994. Identification Guide to the Ant Genera of the World. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Bolton, B. 1995. A New General Catalogue of the Ants of the World. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Bolton, B. 2003. Synopsis and Classification of Formicidae. 370 pp. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute, Vol. 71. Gainesville, FL.
De Andrade, M. L. and C. Baroni Urbani. 1999. Diversity and adaptation in the ant genus Cephalotes, past and present. Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde. Serie B (Geologie und Paläontologie) 271: 1-889.
Hölldobler, B. and E. O. Wilson. 1990. The Ants. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Kempf, W. W. 1951. A taxonomic study on the ant tribe Cephalotini. Revista de Entomologia 22: 1-244.
Kempf, W. W. 1958. New studies on the ant tribe Cephalotini. Studia Entomologica (N.S.) 1: 1-176.
Wheeler, G. C. & Wheeler, J. 1976. Ant larvae: review and synthesis. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Washington 74: 1-108.
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- First online 26 April 2004
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