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Gonatus berryi Naef, 1923

Tsunemi Kubodera, F. G. Hochberg, and Richard E. Young
Containing group: Gonatus


Gonatus berryi is a relatively common and distinctive species. It reaches a maximum size of at least 240 mm ML.


A Gonatus with ...


  1. Arms
    1. Number of suckers in proximal half of each arm IV at 50 mm GL = about ??, and at 119 mm GL = about 45.

  2. Tentacles
    1. Clubs 30-37% of GL.
    2. Club dactylus with 4  sucker series becoming disorganized at dactylus base where sucker series split into those leading to the marginal zones of club.
    3. Club ventral-marginal zone with 3 series of suckers in central region; medial suckers ca. one-fourth diameter of suckers of marginal series. Occasionally 1-2 small suckers present as a partial fourth series.
    4. Club dorsal-marginal zone with few suckers in 1-2 irregular series.
    5. Club medial zone with large central hook; small distal hook and proximal series with 1-2 suckers followed proximally by 2-4 small hooks with largest hook never closest to large central hook (i. e. hooks initially increase in size proximally).
    6. Total number of suckers (excluding terminal pad, medial zone) on tentacular club: about 159-181.
    7. Median region of tentacular stalk between marginal series without suckers except for occasional 1-2 sucker.
    8.  image info
       image info
       image info

      Figure. Oral views of the tentacle and club of G. berryi 119 mm GL, plesiotype. Top - Left tentacle. Middle- Enlargement of the tentacular club. Drawings from Young (1972). Bottom - Right tentacular club. Photograph by R. Young. The drawings have been inverted for easier comparison with the photograph.

  3. Head
    1. Beaks. Information on the beaks of G. berryi can be found here.

  4. Fins
    1. Fins large, ca. 50% of PL.

  5. Photophores
    1. Photophores absent


More details of the description of G. berryi can be found here.

G. berryi, in addition to the features listed above, can generally be recognized by the large size of the central hook, the large club manus and narrow dactylus and the somewhat more distal position of the central hook. 

Life History

The advanced paralarva of G. berryi at 8-10 mm ML has a spherical digestive gland rather than the spindle-shaped, obliquely-oriented digestive gland common to paralarvae of many (all?) other members of the genus.

 image info

Figure. Side view of a paralarva of G. berryi, 10 mm ML. Drawing from Young (1972).

The size of the juvenile at which the various hooks first develop is often distinctive of the species.

 image info
Figure. Chart of the size ranges over which hooks in juveniles of G. berryi first appear. Chart modified from Young (1972).


Type locality: Monterey Bay, California, eastern North Pacific. G. berryi is broadly distributed across the North Pacific.
 image info

Figure. Distribution of G. berryi. Dark pink area indicates known range; light pink area indicates inferred range. Chart modified from Okutani, et al. (1988). 


Okutani, T., T. Kubodera and K. Jefferts. 1983. Diversity, distribution and ecology of gonatid squids in the subarctic Pacific: A review. Bull. Ocean Res. Inst., Univ. Tokyo, No. 26 (1):150-192.

Young, R. E. 1972. The systematics and areal distribution of pelagic cephalopods from the seas off Southern California. Smithson. Contr. Zool., 97: 1-159.

Title Illustrations
Scientific Name Gonatus berryi
Reference Young, R. E. 1972. The systematics and areal distribution of pelagic cephalopods from the seas off Southern California. Smithson. Contr. Zool., 97: 1-159.
View Ventral
Size 119 mm GL
Copyright © Richard E. Young
About This Page

Tsunemi Kubodera
National Science Museum, Tokyo, Japan

F. G. Hochberg
Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History, Santa Barbara, California, USA

Richard E. Young
University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, USA

Citing this page:

Kubodera, Tsunemi, Hochberg, F. G., and Young, Richard E. 2006. Gonatus berryi Naef, 1923. Version 31 May 2006 (under construction). http://tolweb.org/Gonatus_berryi/19773/2006.05.31 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org

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