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Pseudergolinae Jordan 1898

Niklas Wahlberg and Andrew V. Z. Brower
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taxon links [up-->]Amnosia decora [up-->]Dichorragia [up-->]Pseudergolis [up-->]Stibochiona [down<--]Nymphalidae Interpreting the tree
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The relationships of genera in Pseudergolinae are based on the study by Wahlberg et al (2005).
Containing group: Nymphalidae


Pseudergolinae is a small clade of seven species occurring in Southeast Asia and the Malay Archipelago, and one more species in New Guinea.

Phylogenetic Position of Pseudergolinae

The relationships of Pseudergolinae have been enigmatic for a long time. Traditionally, they have been placed in the Limenitidinae, with one species (Amnosia decora) even being transfered to the tribe Nymphalini, and the genus Dichorragia being placed in Apaturinae. Molecular data have given a much clearer picture, supporting the hypothesis that Pseudergolinae is a monophyletic group (Wahlberg et al. 2003, 2005, 2009). Pseudergolinae is sister group to the remainder of the nymphaline clade (Wahlberg et al. 2009).

Discussion of Phylogenetic Relationships

The topology illustrated is that of Wahlberg et al. (2005), who sampled only one species per genus. However, species within genera are very similar to one another, and the genera differ significantly from each other morphologically. Thus the sister relationships of species within genera appear to be quite certain.


Wahlberg, N., A. V. Z. Brower, and S. Nylin. 2005. Phylogenetic relationships and historical biogeography of tribes and genera in the subfamily Nymphalinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 86:227-251.

Wahlberg, N., J. Leneveu, , U. Kodandaramaiah, U., C. Peņa, , S. Nylin, A. V. L. Freitas & A. V. Z. Brower. 2009. Nymphalid butterflies diversify following near demise at the cretaceous/tertiary boundary. Proc. R. Soc. London B 276, 4295-4302.

Wahlberg, N., E. Weingartner, and S. Nylin. 2003. Towards a better understanding of the higher systematics of Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 28:473-484.

Title Illustrations
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Scientific Name Amnosia decora
Specimen Condition Dead Specimen
Identified By Niklas Wahlberg
Life Cycle Stage Adult
Body Part Whole
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Image Use creative commons This media file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License - Version 3.0.
Copyright © Niklas Wahlberg
About This Page

Niklas Wahlberg
University of Turku, Finland

Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, Tennessee, USA

Correspondence regarding this page should be directed to Niklas Wahlberg at and Andrew V. Z. Brower at

Page: Tree of Life Pseudergolinae Jordan 1898. Authored by Niklas Wahlberg and Andrew V. Z. Brower. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License - Version 3.0. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media link to access the media data window, which provides the relevant licensing information. For the general terms and conditions of ToL material reuse and redistribution, please see the Tree of Life Copyright Policies.

Citing this page:

Wahlberg, Niklas and Andrew V. Z. Brower. 2009. Pseudergolinae Jordan 1898. Version 18 November 2009 (under construction). http://tolweb.org/Pseudergolinae/69948/2009.11.18 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

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