CalinagaNiklas Wahlberg and Andrew V. Z. Brower
This tree diagram shows the relationships between several groups of organisms.
The root of the current tree connects the organisms featured in this tree to their containing group and the rest of the Tree of Life. The basal branching point in the tree represents the ancestor of the other groups in the tree. This ancestor diversified over time into several descendent subgroups, which are represented as internal nodes and terminal taxa to the right.
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A subfamily consisting of a single east Asian genus with an indeterminate number of species. Calinaga has been enigmatic and difficult to place in or close to any other nymphalid taxon (Ackery et al. 1999). Lately, Wahlberg et al. (2003, 2005) and Peña et al (2006) have shown based on DNA sequences that it is associated with the Satyrinae and/or Charaxinae.
Ackery PR, de Jong R, and Vane-Wright RI. 1999. The butterflies: Hedyloidea, Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea. In: Kristensen NP, ed. Lepidoptera, moths and butterflies. 1. Evolution, systematics and biogeography. Handbook of Zoology 4(35), Lepidoptera. Berlin: de Gruyter. 263-300.
Pena C, Wahlberg N, Weingartner E, Kodandaramaiah U, Nylin S, Freitas AVL, and Brower AVZ. 2006. Higher level phylogeny of Satyrinae butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) based on DNA sequence data. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 40: 29-49.
Wahlberg N, Braby MF, Brower AVZ, de Jong R, Lee M-M, Nylin S, Pierce NE, Sperling FAH, Vila R, Warren AD, and Zakharov E. 2005. Synergistic effects of combining morphological and molecular data in resolving the phylogeny of butterflies and skippers. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 272: 1577-1586.
Wahlberg N, Weingartner E, and Nylin S. 2003. Towards a better understanding of the higher systematics of Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea). Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 28: 473-484.
Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
Correspondence regarding this page should be directed to Niklas Wahlberg at and Andrew V. Z. Brower at
Page copyright © 2006 Niklas Wahlberg and
- First online 25 September 2006
- Content changed 13 November 2006
Citing this page:
Wahlberg, Niklas and Brower, Andrew V. Z. 2006. Calinaginae http://tolweb.org/Calinaga/12188/2006.11.13 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/. Calinaga . Version 13 November 2006 (under construction).