CalinagaNiklas Wahlberg and Andrew V. Z. Brower
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A subfamily consisting of a single east Asian genus with an indeterminate number of species. Calinaga has been enigmatic and difficult to place in or close to any other nymphalid taxon (Ackery et al. 1999). Lately, Wahlberg et al. (2003, 2005) and Peña et al (2006) have shown based on DNA sequences that it is associated with the Satyrinae and/or Charaxinae.
Ackery PR, de Jong R, and Vane-Wright RI. 1999. The butterflies: Hedyloidea, Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea. In: Kristensen NP, ed. Lepidoptera, moths and butterflies. 1. Evolution, systematics and biogeography. Handbook of Zoology 4(35), Lepidoptera. Berlin: de Gruyter. 263-300.
Pena C, Wahlberg N, Weingartner E, Kodandaramaiah U, Nylin S, Freitas AVL, and Brower AVZ. 2006. Higher level phylogeny of Satyrinae butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) based on DNA sequence data. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 40: 29-49.
Wahlberg N, Braby MF, Brower AVZ, de Jong R, Lee M-M, Nylin S, Pierce NE, Sperling FAH, Vila R, Warren AD, and Zakharov E. 2005. Synergistic effects of combining morphological and molecular data in resolving the phylogeny of butterflies and skippers. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 272: 1577-1586.
Wahlberg N, Weingartner E, and Nylin S. 2003. Towards a better understanding of the higher systematics of Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea). Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 28: 473-484.
University of Turku, Finland
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- First online 25 September 2006
- Content changed 15 November 2009
Citing this page:
Wahlberg, Niklas and Andrew V. Z. Brower. 2009. Calinaginae http://tolweb.org/Calinaga/12188/2009.11.15 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/. Calinaga . Version 15 November 2009 (under construction).