PseudergoliniNiklas Wahlberg and Andrew V. Z. Brower
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Pseudergolini is a small tribe of seven species occurring in Southeast Asia and the Malay Archipelago, and one more species in New Guinea.
The relationships of Pseudergolini have been enigmatic for a long time. Traditionally, they have been placed in the Limenitidinae, with one species (Amnosia decora) even being transfered to the tribe Nymphalini, and the genus Dichorragia being placed in Apaturinae. Molecular data have given a much clearer picture, supporting the hypothesis that Pseudergolini is a monophyletic group (Wahlberg et al. 2003, 2005). Pseudergolini clearly belongs to the nymphaline clade of Wahlberg et al. (2003), however the sister group is still not clear. Wahlberg et al. (2003) suggested that Cyrestini is the sister group, however, a larger sampling of taxa did not corroborate this (Wahlberg et al. 2005). The potential sister groups are Nymphalinae, Apaturinae, Biblidinae and Cyrestini.
The topology illustrated is that of Wahlberg et al. (2005), who sampled only one species per genus. However, species within genera are very similar to one another, and the genera differ significantly from each other morphologically. Thus the sister relationships of species within genera appear to be quite certain.
Wahlberg, N., A. V. Z. Brower, and S. Nylin. 2005. Phylogenetic relationships and historical biogeography of tribes and genera in the subfamily Nymphalinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 86:227-251.
Wahlberg, N., E. Weingartner, and S. Nylin. 2003. Towards a better understanding of the higher systematics of Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 28:473-484.
University of Turku, Finland
Correspondence regarding this page should be directed to Niklas Wahlberg at and Andrew V. Z. Brower at
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- First online 25 September 2006
- Content changed 17 May 2009
Citing this page:
Wahlberg, Niklas and Andrew V. Z. Brower. 2009. Pseudergolini http://tolweb.org/Pseudergolini/69948/2009.05.17 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/. Version 17 May 2009 (under construction).